**METHOD OF A REGULAR REGIME OF THE FIRST KIND FOR SOLID WITH TWO-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE FIELD **// Transactions of Academenergo. -2016. -N 2. – P.P. 7-19.

*Yu.A. Kirsanov ^{*}, A.Yu. Kirsanov ^{**}, Z.I. Zaripov ^{***}, A.E.Yudakhin ^{****}*

**e-mail: **kirsanov-yury@mail.ru, akirsanov@list.ru, zufar_zaripov@mail.ru, aejudakhin@gmail.com

^{* }*FSBIS Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan*

^{** }* FSBEI HPE Kazan National Research Technical University (KNRTU-KAI) them. A.N. Tupolev, Kazan*

^{*** }* FSBEI HPE Kazan National Research Technology University, Kazan*

^{**** }*FSBEI HPE Kazan Power Engineering University, Kazan*

**Keywords: **transient thermal process, regular mode, thermal properties, experiment, heat transfer coefficient.

**Abstract**

Method of a regular regime of the first kind and possibility of its application in studies of solids with one-dimensional and multidimensional temperature fields is considered. The testing technique of the regular regime method in relation to the body with two-dimensional temperature field was proposed. According to the test results, amendment was made in the method of a regular regime for a body with two-dimensional temperature field, which allowed to increase the accuracy of determination of heat transfer coefficient between body surface and environment. An improved method of a regular regime of the first kind was applied in the experimental study of heat exchange between surface of the disc and water.

**SYMMETRY LOSS OF A VISCOELASTIC FLUID FLOW THROUGH A PLANAR T-JUNCTION CHANNEL **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. N 2. P. 20-28.

*F.Kh. Tazyukov, E.R. Kutuzova, G.C. Layek*

**e-mail: **tazyukov@mail.ru, elvira.kutuzova@list.ru, goralayek@yahoo.com

*Kazan National Research Technological University, University of Burdwan (India)*

**Keywords: **Non-Newtonian fluid flows, T-junction channel, symmetry loss, rheological constitutive equations Oldroyd-B and FENE-P, control volume method (CVM).

**Abstract: **

A symmetry loss effect of a viscoelastic fluid flow through a planar T-junction channel is investigated. The distinctive feature of Non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids is that they contain macromolecules that can change their configuration under main flow influence. The Weissenberg number We, Reynolds number Re, ability to change its configuration in the flow and the macromolecule’s stretching ratio L^{2 }(only for the FENE-P) are the governing parameters. As a rheological constitutive equations were chosen the Oldroyd-B and the FENE-P relations. Discussed the possibility of symmetry loss by the fluid flow even at creeping flow regime (Re<<1). It is shown that steady symmetrical fluid flow changes to steady asymmetrical flow under a certain set of the We and L^{2} numbers.

**water lift in inclined pipe by favorable airflow **// Transactions of Academenergo. -2016. -N 2. – P.P. 29-37.

*I.**А**. Davletshin, N.I. Mikheev, **А**.N. Mikheev*

**e-mail: **Davlet60@mail.ru, n.miheev@mail.ru

*Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences *

**Keywords: **gas-liquid flow, liquid film, phase interaction, flow rate.

**Abstract**

Phase interaction of gas-liquid (water-air) channel flow has been studied experimentally. Water flow rate has been obtained depending on the pressure drop for the case of water lift in an inclined pipe by favorable atmospheric airflow. It has been established that, under moderate pressure drop, the specific liquid flow rate is proportional to the pressure drop in the channel minus a quarter of hydrostatic pressure of liquid over the channel height. Experimental data have been compared to calculated estimations.

** **

**EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE ACCUMULATING PROPERTIES OF THERMAL NETWORKS ON THE DELAY TEMPERATURE CHANGE AT THE CONSUMER** // Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. №2. P. 38-45.

*R.Z. Aminov, E.Y. Burdenkova*

**e-mail:** oepran@inbox.ru

**Keywords:** district heating, heat supply by CHP, storage heaters, mains water, temperature is a disturbance on the source of the heat network.

**Abstract**

The modern development of power generating capacity must take into account the reliability and safety of their functioning in conditions of uneven schedules of electricity. When operating in the variable part of the electric load diagram may be a change of the temperature of the direct network water. The response to this temperature perturbation is a change in the temperature of the direct network water from the consumer. The article presents the results of a study to assess the impact of the accumulating properties of the networks to changes in temperature of the direct network water from the consumer showing that the accumulating capacity of heat pipes and thermal insulation materials, can effectively control the modes of heat supply from CHP.

**ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF USE OF CITY COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANTS FOR NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL SERVICES **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. №2. P. 46-57.

*M.M. Zamaleev, V.I. Sharapov, I.V. Gubin, V.A. Pavlov*

**e-mail:** mansur_zamaleev@mail.ru, vlad-sharapov2008@yandex.ru, photograf91@list.ru, er1zo73@ya.ru

*Ulyanovsk state technical university*

**Keywords:** city combined heat and power plant (combined heat and power plant), technologies of utilization of snow, thermal schemes of combined heat and power plant, specific power generation on thermal consumption, heating of drinking water.

**Abstract: **

It is shown that along with development of thermal and electric energy at combined heat and power plant there is a possibility of implementation of the technological processes necessary in municipal services of the city. New solutions of use of infrastructure of combined heat and power plant for utilization of snow and heating of drinking water of system of the centralized water supply are proposed. The calculations of thermal profitability proving high power efficiency of the developed technologies are executed.

**MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS WATER TREATMENT SCHEME WITH A REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULES **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. №2. P. 58-70.

*N.D. Chichirova, A.A. Chichirov, S.R. Saitov*

**e-mail: **ndchichirova@mail.ru, pinpin3@yandex.ru, caapel@mail.ru

*Kazan State Power Engineering University*

**Keywords: **water treatment, baromembrane technology, reverse osmosis, microfiltration, thermal power plants.

**Abstract**

The article presents an algorithm for mathematical model constructing of thermal power plants water treatment scheme with a reverse osmosis modules. The description of Ufa thermal power plant №1 water treatment scheme is given. The algorithm is designed to reduce of the discharge water volume in the original water treatment scheme. The formulas derivation for the calculation of parameters of basic physical and chemical processing occurring in water treatment scheme is given. It describes the method of determining the selectivity coefficients for the reverse osmosis modules on the basis of data provided in the tables of the daily monitoring of operating parameters of water treatment plant.

**MECHANISM SYMMETRY **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. N 2. P. 71-81.

*V.M. Borodin, G.V. Demidov, L.Sh. Khairov, A.V. Shcherbakov*

**e-mail:** Bvm45@yandex.ru, german-demidov@yndex.ru, khairov37@mail.ru, avscherbakov@kstu-kai.ru.

*Kazan National Research Technical University named A.N. Tupolev – KAI*

**Keywords:** signs of symmetry, symmetry elements, symmetry group, the structure of the mechanism, kinematic chain, spatial mechanisms, position function.

**Abstract**

The development of an innovative approach to the mechanism symmetry based on a study of the kinematic chain mobility using methods of analytical mechanics and analytic geometry and the general symmetry principles were presented. Mechanism symmetry is determined by the symmetry of its constitution (structure) which also defines the symmetry mechanism properties. The set of symmetry elements of the kinematic links define the symmetry group (the possible displacement) of the mechanism. The condition of structural synthesis is the invariance of the mechanism position function with respect to the symmetry group due to inherent mechanism behavior. The symmetry group of mechanism is an important mechanism structure characteristic which determines its mobility.

**The set-theoretic analysis of the technical and economic indicators for the tasks of structural and parametric synthesis of computational models of power supply **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. N 2. P. 82-94.

*N.V. Serdyukova, T.E. Shulga, I.N. Fomin *

**e-mail:** nadejda.serd@yandex.ru, shulga@sstu.ru, ignik16@yandex.ru

*Saratov State Technical University*

**Keywords**: technical and economic parameters, calculation model of power supply, the relational data model.

**Abstract**

In the article making the set-theoretic analysis of the data sets defined by the technical and economic indicators of the process of electricity consumption. Demonstration of these parameters allows doing the structural and parametric synthesis of computational models of power. Calculating the cost of consumed electricity for the power supply facilities is dependent on a large number of indicators that are interdependent certain function. The parameters of this function is the set of data on prices and volumes of energy. Use of the sets theory has allowed to define the elements of the relational data model, which makes the calculation model of power supply. The result of the research is data array, which are the parameters to functions of the calculate model. Corresponding tables in a relational database can represent it. Also this structure makes it possible to operate the various contractual and technical parameters of the power supply for the purposes of calculating the cost of energy. The article made a formalization of the main technical and economic parameters that define the data on volumes and prices for electricity and power in the retail market. This article gives an information-theoretic analysis of the data sets on energy consumption. The article presents a relational data model for meter-to-cach systems, which allows process data to calculate the cost of consumed electricity.

*V.I. Panferov, S.V. Panferov*

**ABOUT SOME SOLUTIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING ****CONTROL**** PROBLEM **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. №2. P. 95-108.

**e-mail:** tgsiv@mail.ru, bk97@is74.ru

**Keywords****:** heating system, regulation, heating load, combined load of heating and hot water, weather regulation algorithm, the heater, the heat transfer coefficient.

**Abstract**

A detailed “transcript” entry procedures and validation of algorithms proposed by EY Sokolov to regulate district heating both the heating load (weather control) and on the combined load GTR-prisoners and hot water. It is noted that the received-author of the algorithms are more common than the EY Sokolova, as they allow to calculate the required value of the coolant temperature at any value index heaters installed in the building. Also developed control algorithms for the case where the heat transfer coefficient of heating appliances is considered to be constant. It is shown that the difference of temperature control schedules will then be virtually de minimis. It is noted that centralized regulation is quite rude, not taking into account the specific thermal insulation properties of the building and its thermal performance of the heating system. In this regard, it is more preferred for each individual building weather regulation. The algorithm of the individual weather control. It is noted that the implementation of a nominal weather graphics for buildings with elevator heating system is also available, but only for that you need to apply a method of controlling a pulse.

*G.R. Khalitova, J.V. Karaeva, I.A. Varlamova*

**Selection of loading mode into semi-continuous digester **// Transactions of Academenergo. 2016. №2. P. 109-121.

**e-mail: **julieenergy@list.ru

*Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science Kazan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences*

**Keywords: **semi-continuous digester; organic loading rate, mathematical modeling.

**Abstract**

This paper presents the mathematical model that analyses the biogas yield in a semi-continuous digester. The numerical study of loading modes for anaerobic digestion of swine manure was carried out on the basis of the developed mathematical model. The numerical experiment was carried out for a semi-continuous digester operating during 100 days for various values of the loading periodicity from 1 to 6 days and the portions volume of loaded substrate in fractions of the digester volume : from *n*= 5 (OLR=4 kg m^{-3 }d^{-1}) to *n*=40 (OLR=0.5 kg m^{-3 }d^{-1}). The areas of the highest cumulative methane yield, the greatest relative methane yield rate, as well as the ranges of parameters providing the optimal value of the mean retention time are determined.