Yu.A. Kirsaniov*, A.E. Yudakhin*, D.V. Makarushkin*, A.Yu. Kirsanov**
RESEARCH OF HEAT EXCHANGE IN THE REGENERATOR WITH THE LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY NOZZLE (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 7-24). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-7-24.
e-mail: kirsanov-yury@mail.ru, aejudakhin@gmail.com, atpp.danila@mail.ru, akirsanov@list.ru
*Institute of Power Engineering and Advanced Technologies of FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, Kazan
**Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev – KAI «KNRTU–KAI», Kazan
Keywords: laboratory stand, experimental setup, regenerative air preheater, nonstationary processes, measurements, temperature, heat exchange.
A laboratory setup on the basis of a regenerative air preheater is described. The setup is aimed to research heat exchange in nonstationary processes of the nozzle as the package of parallel plates. The thermocouple method of measuring temperature of cold and hot heat carrier air flows is presented taking into account inertia of sensors. The mathematical model of heat processes in heat carrier air flows and the nozzle is developed for the mode of cyclic heat exchange with cold and hot heat carriers. Temperature trends and the distributions of temperature along the longitudinal axis of the plate are presented as measuring results. The heat exchange coefficients are obtained both by means of the traditional method and the developed mathematical model. The comparison of obtained Nusselt numbers with the proper values calculated by means of the known criterial equation for hot and cold heat carriers is carried out. The heat exchange coefficients for the butt end surface of the plates are obtained for the first time ever.

Y.O. Ayapbergenov, A.F. Ahmetov
PROCESSING OF KARASYAZ-TASPAS BITUMEN (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 25-37). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-25-37.
e-mail Ayapbergenov_E@kaznipi.kz, tng@rusoil.net
Branch of the «KMG Engineering» «KazNIPImunaigaz», Kazakhstan, Aktau
Ufa state oil technical university, Russia, Bashkortostan Republic, Ufa
Keywords: bitumenn, petrobituminous rock, Karasyaz-Taspas, processing products, processing, hydrocarbon raw materials, alternative raw materials, fuel.
Nowadays around the world, attention paid to alternative sources of hydrocarbon materials, and, in particular, to heavy high-viscosity oil and the natural bitumens, which are widespread in the territory of the Western Kazakhstan. Development of fields of bitumen will allow providing with domestic raw materials the whole branches of the national economy of the country. Bitumen in comparison with oil and coal studied much worse. By different estimates, world reserves of nonconventional sources of hydrocarbons are the heavy oil, bitumens and oil sands – billion are estimated in 500–1000 that considerably exceed reserves of traditional (light) oil.
As an object of a research chosen the most large-scale and perspective, deposit of bitumen of Mangyshlak – Karasyaz-Taspas.
To choice of optimum technology to processing bitumen Karasyaz-Taspas distillation carried out with an atmospheric pressure and under a vacuum according to ASTM D 2892 and ASTM D 5236 and correlation of results in accordance with GOST 11011 for crude oil and the remains. It’s established that the content of organic matter changes over a wide range from 1.15% up to 20.06%, an average – 11.37%. According to classification of bitumen Karasyaz-Taspas belong to the class of rich.
In article shown, that the prospects of application of products division of bitumen Karasyaz-Taspas field in the national economy, which meet the requirements of GOST. Results of complex researches of natural bitumen of the Karasyaz-Taspas field prove prospects of these hydrocarbon raw materials – as one of alternative sources of receiving energy resources in Kazakhstan and need of further development of this direction.
In conclusion, of researches developed the scheme of processing bitumen Karasyaz-Taspas. The scheme represents technologically simple and at the same time effective process, based on a complex of the studied and almost tested technologies. For the solution of a question of relevance of processing of domestic alternative hydrocarbon raw materials, the offered technological scheme meets all requirements as from the technical and economic parties.

V.I. Sharapov, М. Оrlov
ABOUT ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF DEAERATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL WATER FLOWS AT HEAT POWER PLANTS (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 38-52). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-38-52.
e-mail: vlad-sharapov2008@yandex.ru
Ulyanovsk state technical university
Keywords: thermal power plants, thermal deaeration, energy efficiency, electricity generation at thermal consumption, theoretically required specific consumption of the desorbing agent, control of the deaeration processes.
The main directions of increasing the energy efficiency of deaeration of process streams of water in thermal power plants are considered. It is shown that the criterion of energy efficiency of deaeration should be the efficiency of fuel use, i.e. the impact of the improvements on the fuel consumption at power plants. A method has been developed for calculating the energy efficiency of new and existing technologies for the deaeration of water at heat power plants. It has been established that the main direction of increasing the energy efficiency of water deaeration in thermal power plants is the reduction of the temperature level of the deaeration process. The technologically necessary temperature level of deaeration is influenced, first of all, by the constructive perfection of the device, the deaerator incorporation schemes in the heat installations of power plants, the availability of fundamentally new technologies of low-temperature water degassing and ways to control the deaeration process. It is shown that one of the main indicators of constructive perfection, mass transfer and energy efficiency of deaerators is the theoretically required specific consumption of the desorbing agent (in the thermal deaerators – vapor). Energy-efficient schemes of inclusion deaerators at thermal power plants have been proposed and implemented, allowing for anti-corrosion treatment of make-up water of heat supply systems and additional feed water for boilers using low-grade heat sources. A fundamentally new technology has been developed for low-temperature deaeration of water using natural gas served into the furnaces of boilers of power plants as a desorbing agent. Deaeration process control technologies have been created and realized, which ensure guaranteed the normative quality of water treatment with the necessary and sufficient energy costs for deaeration. Some original solutions have been developed and implemented to improve the deaeration installations of thermal power plants, for example, the use of a vapor of high-pressure deaerators in vacuum deaerators.

V.E. Yurin, A.N. Egorov
JUSTIFICATION OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS OF AUTONOMOUS HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPLEX IN COMBINING WITH NPP (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 53-62). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-53-62.
e-mail: wwwean@gmail.com
Saratov Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: hydrogen energy, nuclear energy, hydrogen energy complex, integral effect, fossil fuel replacement.
The usage of hydrogen energy complexes at nuclear power plants allows to the operation of the reactor installations with a high capacity factor. It becomes possible to increase in the power and maneuverability of the station to participate in covering the schedule of electrical loads in the power system. To substantiate the economic competitiveness, the authors of the article analyzed efficiency of combining NPPs with an autonomous hydrogen power complex, a feature of which is the possibility of ensuring redundancy of power own needs in situations with blackout. For this purpose, the integral effect from the implementation of the proposed approach has been estimated, taking into account the current and future prices for fuel and electricity, in comparison with an alternative maneuverable energy source i.e. gas turbine plant. As a result, zones of competitiveness of an autonomous hydrogen energy complex are shown depending on the off-peak tariff for electricity, taking into account the different export prices for the displaced natural gas. With the current average export price of natural gas at $250/1000 m3, a positive integral effect is achieved with off-peak tariff for electricity not more than 0.6 rubles / kWh, at $350/1000 m3 or more – the whole considered off-peak tariff range.

A.Z. Daminov*, R.F. Kamalov*, I.N. Solomin**
MODELING OF THE WORKING WHEEL OF A TURBODETANDER THERMOELECTRIC INSTALLATION, WORKING ON A RENKIN CYCLE ON ORGANIC COOLED (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 63-73). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-63-73.
e-mail: daminov@list.ru, rustemran@mail.ru, solil1@yandex.ru
*Institute of Power Engineering and Advanced Technologies of FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS
**ZAO «NPP Compressor»
Keywords: mathematical model, gas-dynamic process, expander, thermoelectric installation
A mathematical model of gas-dynamic processes occurring in a turbo-expander of a thermoelectric unit is developed, describing the processes of gas flow through the nozzle apparatus and the working volume of the wheel. The model includes the dependences of the physical parameters of the working fluid on the flow velocity, the geometry of the profile of the blades of the impeller, and also allows you to determine the balance of optimal pressure drop in the apparatus and efficiency. The description of the basic procedures for modeling the blades of a half-open wheel of the expander thermoelectric installation.

V.A.Pukhliy, S.T.Miroshnichenko, A.K.Pomeranskaja, N.N.Moskvicheva
ABOUT ONE PROBLEM CORROSION DESTRUCTION BIMETALLIC PIPELINES OF WATER-POWER ENGINEERING AND ATOMIC ENGINEERING (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 74-88). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-74-88.
e-mail: pu1611@rambler.ru
The Sevastopol state university
Keywords: water-power engineering and atomic engineering pipelines, corrosion destruction, two-layer covers, initial-regional problem
The analytical approach to definition of a resource of constructional elements of power units of the atomic power station on the basis of the theory of bimetallic shells taking into account the is intense-deformed condition and corrosion deterioration of elements is stated.

Y.A. Kozhevnikov*, V.V. Serbin**
EXTRACTION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FROM LIGNITE OF THE KANSK-ACHINSK BASIN BY ULTRASONIC TREATMENT (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 89-97). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-89-97.
e-mail: jviesh@yandex.ru
* FSBSI «Federal scientific agroengineering center VIM», Moscow. jviesh@yandex.ru
Keywords: lignite, ultrasonic treatment, humic substances, extraction.
Abstract: A distinctive feature of the research is the use of higher amplitudes of acoustic vibrations to extract humic substances from lignite. Maximum yield of humic substances it is observed at the oscillation amplitude of 60 µm, but under the specified conditions the resulting substance is a colloidal product (gel). Due to thus, the following were chosen as the optimal processing conditions characteristics: processing time – 15 min at 40 µm oscillation amplitude. The way ultrasonic treatment allows to obtain a more narrow fraction of humic substances with stable composition and desired properties. A reactor for alkaline extraction of lignite in the flow through the region of ultrasonic influence has been developed. In the proposed reactor active isolation of humic substances begins after 4 minutes of treatment, and when used thermal method – after 50 minutes (process temperature 80°C). Output of humic substances by ultrasonic impact duration of 7 min. is equivalent to the output of products according to GOST 9517-94 for 2 hours and is 31% for lignite of the Kansk-Achinsk basin of the Nazarovsky field.

R.R. Rakhmatullin, J.N. Zatsarinnaya
DETECTION OF ICE ON OVERHEAD ELECTRIC POWER LINES (Transactions of Academenergo. 2019. N 2. pp. 98-103). doi:10.34129/2070-4755-2019-55-2-98-103.
e-mail: Ruslan964@yandex.ru, waysubbota@gmail.com
Gridcom Company, KSPEU
Keywords: electric power lines, ice on wires, ice detection technology
This article discusses the methods used in the Republic of Tatarstan to detect ice on overhead power lines. Based on the analysis of existing methods, it was concluded that it is necessary to develop a method that eliminates a number of existing shortcomings of the methods used. The purpose of this work is to develop a completely new method of detection of ice deposits on the wires of overhead power lines, eliminating the shortcomings of the methods used. A theoretical study of the proposed technique was carried out, as a result of which the possibility of detecting icy formations on the overhead wires by measuring the displacement of RF packets in the exchange of RF signals of differential-phase protection was determined.